For an air pollutant, the "concentration" is the amount of pollutant present in each unit volume (e.g., cubic foot or cubic meter) or unit mass (e.g., pound or kilogram) of air. The term "exposure" usually refers to the product of pollutant concentration in the breathing zone of a space and time the person spends in the space, often summed for all spaces encountered to estimate total exposure. Exposure determines the amount of pollutant that is inhaled. The product of time spent indoors and average indoor air pollutant concentration is an often-used estimate of indoor exposure. Because people who live in developed countries are indoors approximately 90% of the time, their exposures to most indoor-generated and outdoor air pollutants are dominated by indoor exposures. For some indoor-generated pollutants, e.g., some of the chemicals emitted by indoor materials or by consumer products used indoors, outdoor exposures are negligible compared to indoor exposures.
IAQ can affect people's comfort, health, and work and schoolwork performance. Aspects of comfort affected by IAQ include thermal comfort and olfactory or sensory comfort, where the latter is often indicated by the level of acceptability of indoor air. A broad range of health effects may result from indoor pollutant exposures. Some pollutants increase the risk of cancers or other very serious health effects. Some indoor pollutants can infect people and cause infectious disease such as the common cold or influenza. Allergy or asthma symptoms may result from indoor pollutant exposures. Also, indoor pollutants may contribute to eye, nose or throat irritation, skin irritation, cough, wheeze, headache, and fatigue symptoms which are often called sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms or building related symptoms (BRS).
When people are indoors, they are exposed to air pollutants generated from indoor sources and to air pollutants that enter the building with outdoor air. Examples of indoor-generated air pollutants include gases and particles produced by tobacco smoking, particles and gases released by molds and bacteria that grow indoors on damp surfaces, and the volatile organic compounds (gaseous chemicals containing carbon and hydrogen and often other elements) emitted by some building products, furnishings, and consumer products. People are also sources of indoor air pollutants, for example, odorous gases. Ozone, a reactive gaseous constituent of outdoor air pollution, and various types of very small invisible particles are examples of outdoor air pollutants that enter buildings with outdoor air.
IAQ conditions depend upon the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of a building and on the outdoor environmental conditions. People and their activities also affect IAQ conditions. Indoor pollutant concentrations depend primarily on outdoor concentrations, on the rates of pollutant emissions from various indoor sources, and on the rates at which pollutants are removed from indoors by ventilation with outdoor air, filtration, and natural processes such as pollutant deposition from air onto surfaces. Examples of indoor pollutant sources include building materials, furnishings, equipment, cleaning and pest control products, pets, molds, bacteria, and people and their activities such as tobacco smoking and cooking. The main factors affecting indoor thermal comfort are indoor air temperatures, the temperatures of exterior walls and windows, humidity, and the amount of indoor air motion. Thermal comfort is also affected by the activity level and by clothing of the occupants. Individual thermal comfort preferences vary. The design of the building's envelope, the design and operation of the building's heating and air conditioning systems, and the outdoor temperature and humidity are key determinants of thermal comfort. Indoor lighting and acoustic conditions similarly depend on multiple features of the building and on occupant activities.
Pure Air Control Services, Inc. (PACS) provides guidance for these concerns. Assessment results and visual observations are documented and explained in terms of their affect on the buildings indoor air and occupants.
PACS can perform environmental sampling, mechanical hygiene evaluations, thermography, blower door analysis, duct leakage analysis and building pressure analysis to get a picture of how the indoor environment is being affected by the building and its components. PACS will follow up on all reported complaints. Using the results from the assays performed, PACS will then explain how these results relate to the occupant complaints along with clear and concise conclusions regarding what is happening in the indoor environment. PACS then gives precise and concrete recommendations to address the occupants and building managers’ concerns.
For a professional IAQ Assessment of your building or home, please call William Radu or Alan Wozniak at 800-422-7873 ext. 202 or 802 respectively.
About Pure Air Control Services:
Founded in 1984 by Alan Wozniak, President/CEO in what began as a small mechanical contracting business has grown into an award winning, industry leading indoor air quality (IAQ) service company serving many fortune 500 corporations, school boards, county, city, state and federal governments and consumers across the US. The firm has serviced over 600 million square feet of indoor environments in over 10,000 facilities.
Pure Air’s nationally performed services include: Building Sciences Evaluation; Building Health Check; an AIHA accredited Environmental Microbiology Laboratory; Environmental Project Management; and Duct Cleaning & Mold Remediation Services, among other indoor environmental services. The company’s expanding client roster includes the General Services Administration (GSA); Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Allstate Insurance; Carrier Air Conditioning; Naval Air Warfare Center, Orlando; and Naval Air Station - King's Bay, Georgia, and many other Fortune 500 companies, school boards, and city, state, and county governments, making Pure Air a reliable industry leader For more information, visit the company’s web site at www.pureaircontrols.com or contact Alan Wozniak at 1-800-422-PURE (7873) ext 802.